A social visit visa (mainly for short visits and tourism purposes) is dependent on the origin country of the foreigner. Individuals from some countries (e.g. South East Asian countries) may automatically be given one for a stay of up to 30 days and for other countries it can be up to 90 days (e.g. USA, UK, Australia). It is advisable to check with the relevant Malaysian Embassy/ High Commission in your origin country for the SVP requirements before making any travel plans.
A Special Pass may be given through special consideration e.g. due to illness, accident, war in home country etc. The visitor must furnish evidence, and present a confirmed return ticket to their home country or third country. A Special Pass is also given when the SVP has expired and you are in the process of submitting your application for a LTSVP or awaiting the approval of the LTSVP.
If you know you are going to overstay, please contact/ visit your local Immigration Office to seek advise on what is needed. Be prepared with legitimate reasons for your overstay (eg: a medical letter/ report; or any other proof of why you need to overstay) and the estimated duration of the overstay period. Depending on your situation, the Immigration Officer will advise on your options and penalties (if any) for overstaying.
No, this is not possible unless special permission is given. In order to travel to Sabah and Sarawak, a valid SVP is needed. Sarawak and Sabah have independent immigration laws. You would need a valid visa to travel to either of these states.